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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Games Vectrex Atari Part of the material of the following pages visit web page origin ally collected and presented in partial fulfillment of the re quirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of Pennsylvania. Since then the treatise has been revised throughout and much new material added.
These additions consist, in the main, of parallels or cor relates Rowan von Krampfadern were found in various European libraries or gathered by word of mouth in those districts of Germany from which most of the ancestors of the Pennsylvania Rowan von Krampfadern mans emigrated to America. The aim of the present volume is two-fold. It is in tended primarily as a contribution not only to American Folklore but more especially as a chapter in the larger field of German American relations, the pioneer exponent of which is the present Professor of the Germanic Languages and Literatures in Rowan von Krampfadern University of Pennsylvania.
Other considerations, secondly, have made it imperative that the general public should be interested in the book. It has therefore been deemed advisable to adopt a simpler phonetic notation in reproducing the vernacular than might other wise have been permissible.
It should be emphasized that the contents of the present volume are to be regarded as a serious attempt at putting into permanent form a phase of folk-life which will soon disappear into the background and thus be irretrievably lost. This book is therefore not intended as a source of supply for those whose aim in speaking and writing about Rowan von Krampfadern Pennsylvania Germans seems to be to exaggerate and misrepresent.
Special acknowledgment must be given to the following: Learned for most valuable sug gestions in the inception of the collection and for that en couragement which alone comes from an inspiring leader; iii IV PREFACE. Shumway whose success in transla tion has made his suggestions and corrections in the trans lation of the dialect material invaluable; to Professors Friedrich Pfaff, of Freiburg, i.
Bauer, of Freiburg, i. Fogel, of Princeton University; and finally to friends and acquaintances in Pennsylvania who made the collection of material possible. German colonization in the western hemisphere is al most coeval with the discovery of America by Columbus.
Under the aegis of the great German merchant princes, the Welsers and the Fuggers, attempts at colonization were made, before the third decade of the sixteenth century, on both coasts of South America. Welser s Rowan von Krampfadern resulted Rowan von Krampfadern the founding of " Klein Venedig," Venezuela, between and ; Fugger s along the west coast, being a failure. The Cre- felders came to Philadelphia on the sixth of Octoberthe most important date in the history of German emigra tion to America.
It is estimated that more than five millions of Germans have settled on our shores, Rowan von Krampfadern they constitute one Rowan von Krampfadern the most important factors in American history. The second decade of the nineteenth century seems to divide these German Rowan von Krampfadern into two great classes, the former of whom came to escape religious persecution or be cause of the devastations in the Ehenish Palatinate by the French ; the latter came as a result of political upheavals in the fatherland.
It is obvious that those who have come sinceand more especially those who followed in the wake of the ers are drawn from quite different strata of society. The former settled in the country, the latter in the cities. It is those who came before who are the forebears of the Pennsylvania Germans. The immigrants settled in prac tically every county in Pennsylvania, there being twenty- eight counties with distinctively Pennsylvania German settlements before The Pennsylvania Germans, as a whole, are the result of the great Pfalzereimvanderung which began in Rowan von Krampfadern With these Palatines came also some Swiss, and their presence is still felt dialectally in Lancaster and York coun ties.
However, the dialect of the superstitions given in the following pages is strikingly similar to that spoken in the Khenish Palatinate at the present time. In order to ascer tain whether the superstitions were extant in various sec tions of Germany, the author read them in their native dia lect to those who spoke allied dialects.
It was exceedingly interesting to note the ease with which the dialect was understood throughout Baden and the Ehenish Palatinate, whereas in Swabia it was only with difficulty that the import of the material read was understood. After hear ing probably a third of the superstitions of the present collection one of the Gymnasialprofessoren in Kaisers- lautern who has devoted considerable time to dialect study remarked: This statement is quoted here only for the pur pose of contradicting those who say that "Pennsylvania German is nothing but a mixture of bad English and worse German.
The dialect student will therefore agree that Pennsylvania German takes rank with the most important dialects of Ger many and that the presence of English words does not Rowan von Krampfadern any way militate against such Rowan von Krampfadern, for, after all, the vocabulary of a people is conditioned to a great extent by environment and other potent social influences.
They cover an area of more than square miles and have a population of more than one and one quarter millions. It is very much to be regretted that the directors of the United States Census have not seen fit to take cognizance of the dialectal pecul iarities of our population, and therefore the census does not shed any light on the probable number of those who can speak a language other than English.
It would seem a con servative estimate to say that more thanpeople in Pennsylvania alone understand Pennsylvania German and thatspeak the dialect.
Almost all the Christian denominations are represented in the Pennsylvania population, with, however, few Presby- terians and Episcopalians ; for the Reformed Church In the United States is the German counterpart of the British Presbyterians. In this territory there are, so far as can be ascertained, only two Catholic settlements, one in Berks and the learn more here in York county.
Schafferstown, Lebanon county, was the oldest Jewish settlement in Pennsylvania, but with the exception of the cemetery there, there are no traces left of the Jewish community. The German Reformed Refor- mirte and Lutherans Luteraner were among the first settlers and are at the present lime numerically stronger than any other of the denominations or sects.
The Menno- nites Rowan von Krampfadernto be sure, came earlier, but there are not very many of them except in Lancaster county. The Arnish Amischealso called u hooker " Meimonites are one of the dozen branches of the Mennonites. The Schwenk- feldians Schwenkf elder and Moravians Haerrnhuter came before Many of these wear " plain clothes " and some of them have no church buildings and worship in pri vate houses. The Pennsylvania Germans have, in many re spects, clung to the customs and beliefs which their ances tors brought with them from the fatherland.
And there are still traces of the mysticism of Tauler, Bohme and Spener. Most of the denominations and sectaries are non- liturgical Rowan von Krampfadern have a free service, even though they may have an episcopal government. Many of them are close- communionists and forbid intermarriage. In many of the churches Rowan von Krampfadern sexes are still segregated after the fashion in the Stiftskirche in Tubingen.
Where German is the pulpit language it is not the lumbering style of the present day Ger man so often heard Rowan von Krampfadern German pulpits, but rather a simple modified Luther German without, in many here, any serious effort at correctness in inflectional endings.
In many sections of the Pennsylvania German territory Eng lish is rapidly supplanting Pennsylvania German or Ger man as the pulpit language under the influence of the public schools and a consequent apparent disregard for German. The Pennsylvania German takes considerable interest in education, as is shown by the number of so-called smaller colleges and other schools in this territory.
Many of them were founded with the express purpose of preparing young men for the Christian ministry. Some of the schools in this territory were however not due to any German impulse. The principal Rowan von Krampfadern and colleges in the Pennsylvania Ger man district are: But there is another phase to this picture which is equally important culturally the traditions, beliefs and superstitions of the people.
The material of the following pages was collected en Rowan von Krampfadern by http://oberlausitzer-wanderstiefel.de/ob-es-moeglich-ist-mit-krampfadern-zu-verdrehen.php author by word of mouth. No printed collec tions, of which there are probably a score, were taken Rowan von Krampfadern consideration, as they are all small, the largest of them con taining less than superstitions.
Among these may be mentioned: The Pennsyl vania Germans; etc. The author therefore had to begin collecting by asking Rowan von Krampfadern friends and acquaintances in his home county for any superstitions which they might know or have heard. These were immediately written down and read to the next person interviewed, for, "that reminds me" applies to superstitions as well as to stories.
By this meth od variants and new superstitions Rowan von Krampfadern gathered until the collection numbered aboutafter which the other Penn sylvania German counties were canvassed in the same way. This accounts for the variations in spelling and word usage and is the main reason for publishing the superstitions in the original, since by und Thrombophlebitis method it is made possible to have a permanent record of a distinctive German dialect on foreign soil and in the beginning Rowan von Krampfadern the twentieth century.
To Rowan von Krampfadern that virtually all the superstitions of the pres ent collection are importations and in that sense survivals of German and British superstitions the use of correlates was decided upon.
This was done wherever Rowan von Krampfadern correlates could be found in the voluminous literature in the field of folklore in the libraries of the University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University ; in the Eoyal Library in Berlin, the University libraries at Heidelberg, Tubingen and Freiburg ; and in the British Museum in London.
Whenever a superstition was found to have a correlate, it was noted and is Salben trophischer Geschwüre Heilung be found immediately after the name of the coun ties in which the respective superstition occurs here. In this way the author has added several hundred Rowan von Krampfadern tions to the German collections. Research in the British Museum was undertaken with the express Rowan von Krampfadern of trying to ascertain how many of the superstitions in the present collection had a British, or German, or common origin.
Unfortunately, the British have never paid von Krampfadern Beinerkrankung attention to superstitions and in this field are far outclassed by their German cousins.
Click at this page al most all the British collections we read this sentence: That this disparity is entirely too great is obvious and it shows only too plainly that the British Folklore Society Rowan von Krampfadern not done for Great Britain what the friends of Volkskunde have done for Germany in collecting and publishing every bit of folklore material.
And more is the pity since much very valuable material will soon be ir retrievably lost. Again, in the present collection 65 per cent, of the superstitions have German correlates, less than 5 per cent, purely British, 19 per cent. British and German, and about 20 per cent, seem to be indigenous to Pennsylvania German soil, Rowan von Krampfadern visit web page very large percentage, which is however easily accounted for by the large number of variants, many of them occurring in only a single county.
The word correlate as here used has two meanings: Grant ist gut fiir gespenst oder zauberei angehangt. Of these two classes the latter is best represented, and it does not seem difficult to explain why this should be so, when we stop to think that most of these superstitions and Rowan von Krampfadern have been handed Rowan von Krampfadern from generation to generation by word of mouth and very few have been transmitted in book form, as is shown by the variants of the same superstition in dif ferent localities.
Almost every phase Rowan von Krampfadern activity is represented in the superstitions of the following pages. That Saints Days are comparatively poorly represented is "to be accounted for from the fact that Catholicism has never had any ap preciable influence among the Pennsylvania Germans and that the early German settlers came from Protestant terri tory. A few of the superstitions can be traced back to Ger manic heathendom.
These books are mentioned here so as not to necessitate the constant repetition of citations. Tuesday, Rowan von Krampfadern for Tiw, Ziu, Tyr, and Thursday, named for Thor, Donar, are the favorite wedding days in most of the Pennsylvania German counties, although cus tom varies in this respect in different localities. Donar s hammer, mjolnir, is reflected in the superstition "for in somnia put a rukschte under your pillow.
The rukschte" is a roundish stone found lying on more info and is the Pennsylvania German interpretation of the Donarkeil or belemnite. Red objects such as the houseleek, the mountain ash, rowan-berries, the was Thrombophlebitis einer erfolgen bei with its red bark, animals hav ing a red color, even red objects, such Rowan von Krampfadern stockings, bands, garters, coats, wax tapers, etc.
Collar- gall may thus be prevented or cured by putting the skin of a weasel or oppossum under the collar. It is probably for the same reason that red flannel underwear is worn to pre vent rheumatism. Since Donar was the god of marriage and since everything red was sacred to him, Rowan von Krampfadern tying of a piece of red flannel around the leg to stop puerperal hem orrhage is a direct survival of the old Rowan von Krampfadern. Because Donar was the god of the hearth and the family, the kettlehook source sacred to him.
Rowan von Krampfadern lies the source of the superstition of looking into the chimney to prevent homesickness. The Anglo-Saxons picked the herbs which they used for medicinal purposes on Thursday, and in all the Penn sylvania German counties it is customary to eat some greens, such as spinach, dandelion, etc. For " liver grown" creep under a vine or bramble that has taken second root, or pass the "livergrown" child through a horse Rowan von Krampfadern or through a rent or hole in a tree.
In pagan times sick children were passed through a hole in an oak tree, or ash tree, or hip tree Rosa canina on three successive Thursdays. The reference to the horse collar is interesting because the horse was sacred to Wodan.
Thor s image was put on the prow of the boat, the sailors in this manner imploring Thor for favorable winds. After the introduction of Christianity the image of Thor was supplanted by the crucifix and now the crucifix is re placed by allegorical figures, in other words, a return Rowan von Krampfadern paganism.
In early Rowan von Krampfadern cattle were Rowan von Krampfadern to pasture for the first time on Thursdays, and in most Pennsylvania German counties you will not find a moving on Monday, Wednesday or Friday, and the place taken by cattle in the moving is likewise interesting.
Full text of "Beliefs and superstitions of the Pennsylvania Germans" Rowan von Krampfadern